# Planet For Application Life Development Presents MY IT WorldExplore and uptodate your technology skills...

CPP Operators

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. C++ is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators:

• Arithmetic Operators

• Relational Operators

• Logical Operators

• Bitwise Operators

• Assignment Operators

• Misc Operators

### Arithmetic Operators:

There are following arithmetic operators supported by C++ language:

OperatorDescriptionExample
+Adds two operands A + B will give 30
-Subtracts second operand from the first A - B will give -10
*Multiplies both operands A * B will give 200
/Divides numerator by de-numerator B / A will give 2
%Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division B % A will give 0
++Increment operator, increases integer value by one A++ will give 11
--Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one A-- will give 9

### Relational Operators:

There are following relational operators supported by C++ language

OperatorDescriptionExample
== Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true.
!= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A != B) is true.
> Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A < B) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.

### Logical Operators:

There are following logical operators supported by C++ language

OperatorDescriptionExample
&& Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. !(A && B) is true.

### Bitwise Operators:

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ are as follows:

pqp & qp | qp ^ q
00000
01011
11110
10011

Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows:

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

-----------------

A&B = 0000 1100

A|B = 0011 1101

A^B = 0011 0001

~A = 1100 0011

OperatorDescriptionExample
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number.
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

### Assignment Operators:

There are following assignment operators supported by C++ language:

OperatorDescriptionExample
=Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C
+=Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=Left shift AND assignment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=Right shift AND assignment operator C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=Bitwise AND assignment operator C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

### Misc Operators

OperatorDescription
sizeofsizeof operator returns the size of a variable. For example, sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4.
Condition ? X : YConditional operator. If Condition is true ? then it returns value X : otherwise value Y
,Comma operator causes a sequence of operations to be performed. The value of the entire comma expression is the value of the last expression of the comma-separated list.
. (dot) and -> (arrow)Member operators are used to reference individual members of classes, structures, and unions.
CastCasting operators convert one data type to another. For example, int(2.2000) would return 2.
&Pointer operator & returns the address of an variable. For example &a; will give actual address of the variable.
*Pointer operator * is pointer to a variable. For example *var; will pointer to a variable var.

### Operators Precedence in C++:

Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:

For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.

Category  Operator Associativity
Postfix () [] -> . ++ - -   Left to right
Unary  + - ! ~ ++ - - (type)* & sizeof  Right to left
Multiplicative   * / % Left to right
Additive  + -  Left to right
Shift   << >>  Left to right
Relational  < <= > >=  Left to right
Equality   == !=  Left to right
Bitwise AND  Left to right
Bitwise XOR  Left to right
Bitwise OR  Left to right
Logical AND &&  Left to right
Logical OR  ||  Left to right
Conditional ?:  Right to left
Assignment  = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left
Comma  Left to right